Urinary Inconsistencies and Overactive Bladder

Nursing homework help: In males with urinary inconsistencies, dementia, an overactive bladder, or even those going through alcohol withdrawal, what is the effect of condom catheterization as compared to the use of Foley catheterization on the prevention of CAUTIs a condition referred to as Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs)?

Article #

Author & Date

Evidence Type

Sample, Sample Size, & Setting

Study findings that help answer the EBP question


Evidence Level & Quality


Agrawal, M., Gite, V. A., & Sankapal, P. (2020)

Case Study

· 2 case studies that presented to the emergency department

Evidence of the importance of proper care and maintenance of condom catheters.



to improve

Level V

Quality B


Jabbour, Y., Abdoulazizi, B., Karmouni, T., El Khader, K., Koutani, A., & Iben Attya Andaloussi, A. (2018).

Pilot Study

· 1 case that presented to the emergency department

The importance of catheter management and potential complication of poor maintenance of a condom catheter.

Small sample size

Level V- High



Li, F., Song, M., Xu, L., Deng, B., Zhu, S., & Li, X. (2019)


· 23,738 patients and 25 hospitals

The cause of urinary tract infection in relation to prolong use of catheters in bedridden patients.

Too broad of sample size

Level V

Quality B


Majumder, M. M. I., Ahmed, T., Ahmed, S., & Khan, A. R. (2018)

Mix method


· No individual studies

The rational and un rational use of the catheter use and what ultimately leads to infection development.

No sample sizes. No individual studies.

Level V

Quality B


Hariati, H., Suza, D. E., & Tarigan, R. (2019)

A Pilot Study

· 82 Patients treated in the General Hospital of Medan

Provides analysis of the risk factors activating CAUTI

Small sample size,

lack of completed

data & terminology

Level IV

Quality A


Majumder, I., Ahmed, T., Ahmed, S. (2018)

Pilot Study

· 100 patients with indwelling catheters at Dhiraj General Hospital

This study discovered the most known pathogens (E. coli and Klebsiella) to be created by CAUTI’s.


dependent on


interpretation of

primary literature

Level III

Quality B


Gnade, C., Storm, D., & Ten Eyck, P. (2017)


Interview Study

· 150 patients undergoing major urologic oncology surgery

It encourages the use of alternative methods other than catheterization

Initial sample group not clear,



Level III

Quality B


Gnade, C., Wu, C., Ten Eyck, P., Leder, L., & Storm, D. (2020)

Quantitative research study

· Inpatient CAUTI database. No sample study

Measures the catheter utilization and CAUTI rate using binomial scattering and compares the result

No sample study

Level III

Quality A


Advani, S. D., & Fakih, M. G. (2019)



· No sample study. Healthcare associated urinary tract infections

It suggests that the chances of CAUTI to develop into secondary complications is very minimal.

No sample group

Level V

Quality B


Dehghanrad, F., Gholamzadeh, S., Ghorbani, M., Nobakht-e-Ghalati, Z., Rosenthal, V., Zand, F. (2019)

Quasi-experimental study

· 330 patients in the hospital setting

It advices the use of standardize device utilization ratio which provides a good surrogate that inhibits damages associated with catheter.



for improvement

Level IIIHigh



Be sure to include the sample (population of interest), sample size (# of participants), setting (location of the participants)


Advani, S. D., & Fakih, M. G. (2019). The evolution of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI): is it time for more inclusive metrics? Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 40(6), 681-685.

Agrawal, M., Gite, V. A., & Sankapal, P. (2020). Penile gangrene: A rare but disastrous complication of the improper application of condom catheters. Journal of Clinical Urology, 2051415820961915.

Dehghanrad, F., Nobakht-e-Ghalati, Z., Zand, F., Gholamzadeh, S., Ghorbani, M., & Rosenthal, V. (2019). Effect of instruction and implementation of a preventive urinary tract infection bundle on the incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infection in intensive care unit patients. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 16(2), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/94099

Jabbour, Y., Abdoulazizi, B., Karmouni, T., El Khader, K., Koutani, A., & Iben Attya Andaloussi, A. (2018). Penile gangrene and necrosis leading to death secondary to strangulation by condom catheter. Case reports in urology, 2018.

Li, F., Song, M., Xu, L., Deng, B., Zhu, S., & Li, X. (2019). Risk factors for catheter‐associated urinary tract infection among hospitalized patients: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of observational studies. Journal of advanced nursing, 75(3), 517-527.

Majumder, M. M. I., Ahmed, T., Ahmed, S., & Khan, A. R. (2018). Microbiology of catheter associated urinary tract infection (p. 31). IntechOpen.

Hariati, H., Suza, D. E., & Tarigan, R. (2019). Risk Factors Analysis for Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Medan, Indonesia. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 7(19), 3189.

Gnade, C., Storm, D., & Ten Eyck, P. (2017). MP92-02 BPA alert effect on CAUTI hospital-wide at UIHC. The Journal of Urology, 197(4S), e1226-e1226.

Gnade, C., Wu, C., Ten Eyck, P., Leder, L., & Storm, D. (2020). The Influence of an Electronic Medical Record Embedded Best Practice Alert on Rate of Hospital Acquired Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Do Best Practice Alerts Reduce CAUTIs? Urology, 141, 71-76.

Md. Mahabubul Islam Majumder, Tarek Ahmed, Saleh Ahmed and Ashiqur Rahman Khan (November 5th 2018). Microbiology of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection, Microbiology of Urinary Tract Infections – Microbial Agents and Predisposing Factors, Payam Behzadi, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.80080. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/microbiology-of-urinary-tract-infections-microbial-agents-and-predisposing-factors/microbiology-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection


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