Types of Validity

In the context of research design, two types of validity, which speak to the quality of different features of the research process, are considered: internal validity and external validity. Assuming that the findings of a research study are internally valid—i.e., the researcher has used controls to determine that the outcome is indeed due to manipulation of the independent variable or the treatment—external validity refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population or to other settings and groups. Reliability refers to the replicability of the findings.

For this Discussion, you will consider threats to internal and external validity in quantitative research and the strategies used to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical implications of designing quantitative research.

With these thoughts in mind:
Post an explanation of a threat to internal validity and a threat to external validity in quantitative research. Next, explain a strategy to mitigate each of these threats. Then, identify a potential ethical issue in quantitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions. Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach.

Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Windshield Survey

Website Resource 15C

Use the following topics to guide your observational assessment of the community. Be sure to

note the condition of facilities and the presence or absence of services, facilities, housing, and


1. Area: Urban or rural, boundaries, densely or sparsely populated, and general condition of the area (i.e., well or poorly maintained)

2. Demographics: Observations about the people, including sex (mixed or heavily skewed to one sex), ages (i.e., young, old, mix), homogeneous or culturally mixed, and racial and ethnic characteristics

3. Amenities and Open Spaces: Parks, tennis courts, swimming pools, recreation areas, movie theaters, skating rinks, sports arenas, or lack thereof

4. Transportation:

Public: Visible transportation such as buses, cabs, street cars, and subways

Private: Cars, motorcycles, bikes, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and other vehicles, and the condition of the vehicles (i.e., new or old, well or poorly maintained)

5. Safety: Active or inactive neighborhoods and retail areas, pedestrians, people mingling, children playing, presence of police, presence of gangs, and homes fortified or not (i.e., having safety bars on the windows)

6. Commercial Buildings and Areas: Type of retail stores and other services such as shopping malls, strip malls, small neighborhood stores, liquor stores, check-cashing establishments, grocery stores, and evidence of industry (i.e., factories in use or abandoned)

7. Government Offices: Town hall, police station, fire station, court house, human service facilities, and other types of government buildings

Website Resources 15C-2 Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2005, 2000, 1995 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8. Health Services: Drug stores, public clinics, private clinics, hospitals, physicians’ offices, counseling services, drug and alcohol treatment facilities, or other types of health-related buildings and services

9. Schools Public elementary, middle, or high schools, private schools and types, colleges, and technical schools (e.g., industrial, auto mechanic, beauty schools)

10. Residential Areas: Types of residences (e.g., apartments, condominiums, row houses, single-family dwellings) and condition (i.e., new or old, well or poorly maintained), condition of lawns or common areas if available, and size of dwellings (i.e., large or small apartment complexes, large or small homes, or a mix)

11. Religion: Presence or absence of religious facilities, types of facilities (i.e., churches [denominations], synagogues, temples, mosques, convents), and mix of religions represented

12. Communication: Messages posted, newspaper stands, graffiti, and political signs or other communication efforts

13. Environment: Condition of air, water, and soil; noticeable smog or haze; and obvious pollutants

14. Other Observations Pertinent to Your Community


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