The Skeletal System

Biology homework help: Pre-Lab Questions:

”1. List the functions of the skeletal system.”

”2. What material contributes the greatest to the compressive strength of bone? ”

”3. Briefly describe the process of bone remodeling. ”

Experiment 1: Classification of Bones

Table 6: Classification of Bones

Bone Name Classification by Shape Classification by Location

Post-Lab Questions

”1. Why is it important to classify bones? ”

”2. Aside from length, what are some other common characteristics of a long bone? Are long bones typically associated with the axial or appendicular skeleton? ”

”3. Compare flat bones and long bones. How are they different? How are they the same? ”

Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image Examination—Bone

Post-Lab Questions

”1. Label the arrows in the following digital slide images: ”

”Cortical Bone: ”

A-

B-

C-

D-

”Trabecular Bone: ”

A-

B-

”2. Compare and contrast cortical and trabecular bone. ”

”3. What is the purpose of cortical bone? What is the purpose of trabecular bone? ”

”4. What are trabeculae? What is their function? ”

”5. What are haversian systems? What is their function? ”

Experiment 5: Physical Skeleton – The Axial Skeleton

Table 9: Cervical Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations

Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to those of the thoracic and lumbar region

Shape of the vertebral foramen

Spinous Process of the C3 – C6 Vertebrae

Spinous Process of the C7 Vertebra

Table 10: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations

Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region

Shape of the vertebral body

Appearance and projection direction of the Spinous Process

Table 11: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations

Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region

Shape of the vertebral body

Appearance and projection direction of the Spinous Process

Table 15: Rib Feature Observations

Rib Feature Observations

Length of ribs 1 – 7 (do they increase or decrease in length?)

Length or ribs 8 – 12 (do they increase or decrease in length?)

Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae (notice the specific rib and vertebra that articulate)

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each. ”

 

”2. On the skull below, fill in the blanks with the correct bone names. ”

A-

B-

C-

D-

E-

F-

”3. For the following bones, state whether they are cranial or facial bones and give their location. ”

Bone Facial or Cranial Location

Temporal Bones

Mandible

Vomer

Zygomatic Bones

Parietal Bones

Ethmoid Bone

Sphenoid Bone

Lacrimal Bones

”4. What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of the vertebrae in each region. ”

”5. What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions? ”

”6. On the vertebra below, fill in the blanks with the correct vertebral structure. ”

A-

B-

C-

D-

E-

”7. What is the purpose of the thoracic cage? ”

”8. Describe the three components of the sternum. ”

”9. Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs and floating ribs. ”

Experiment 6: Virtual Model – The Axial Skeleton

”1. What features are located inferior to the cranium, and superior to the mandibular? Identify the category here. How many individual items are included in this category? Hint: The answer is not a bone. ”

”2. Why aren’t teeth considered bones? ”

”3. Identify the two major bones which compose the head. ”

”4. To what bone does the right scapula attach? ”

”5. Is the left clavicle superior or inferior to the right scapula? ”

Experiment 7: Physical Skeleton – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are the four parts of the upper extremity and the lower extremity of the appendicular skeleton? ”

”2. Compare and contrast the size and function of the upper and lower extremities of the appendicular skeleton. ”

”3. What are the three fused bones that make up the coxae of the pelvic girdle? What is their location in relationship to one another? ”

Experiment 8: Virtual Model – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

”1. How many left metatarsals are there? ”

”2. Is the right fibula inferior or superior to the patella? ”

”3. Are the ossa digitorum or the ossa metatarsalia more medial to the body? ”

”4. Which two bones attach to the patella? ”

”5. Identify the three bones which comprise the leg. ”

Experiment 9: Articulations

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What two ways can joints be classified? What are the three classifications of each type? ”

”2. Fibrous joints are either sutures or syndesmoses. What is the difference between the two? Give examples of each type. ”

”3. A symphysis and synchondroses are two classifications of what type of joint? What are the differences between the two classifications? ”

”4. What allows synovial joints to be diarthrotic? ”

”5. For the following, match the correct synovial joint to the movement it produces. ”

”Pivot Joint” ”Gliding Joint”

”Ball and Socket Joint ” ”Condyloid Joint”

”Saddle Joint” ”Hinge Joint”

 

Movement Joint

Uniaxial movement, typically flexion or extension

Uniaxial rotation

Side-to-side and back-and-forth movement

Multiaxial movement

Concave and convex surfaces of both bones allow for biaxial movement

Ellipsoidal fit allows for biaxial movement

6. Fill in the chart below:

Joint Articulating Bones Type of Synovial Joint Movement

Elbow

Knee

Hip

Ankle

Wrist

Experiment 10: Virtual Model- Skeletal System Coloring Activity

”Insert the image for each exercise below: ”

”Left Arm: ”

”Sternum and Clavicles: ”

”Vertebral Column: ”

”Right Hand: ”

”Sacrum: ”

”Legs: ”

”Feet: ”

Experiment 11: Skeletal System of the Fetal Pig

Table 34: Skeletal Region Observations

Skeletal Region Observations

Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Joints

Post-Lab Questions

”1. What are some of the similarities and differences you noticed between the human skeletal system and the palpation of the fetal pig skeletal system? ”

”Insert photo of pig in dissection tray with your name clearly visible in the background: ”

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