HST 276 History and Archaeology

HST 276 History and Archaeology

Week 1 Worksheet
As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

1. History and Archaeology
a. The written record of the past and the study of past written records is called History .

b. The study of the past based on recovering and identifying artifacts and making inferences about those who left these artifacts is called Archaeology .

c. Both historians and archaeologists describe the past. Historians study Written Records to form this description, whereas archaeologists study artifacts .

d. Scholars’ ability to relate narrative stories of past Andean cultures is limited because they did not use written language , but recent advances in translating the language has allowed a better understanding of Mesoamerican cultures.

e. Based on archaeological and genetic evidence, scholars believe the first people to settle the Americas came across a natural land bridge , from Siberia into Alaska .

2. The Civilizations of Al-Andalus
a. The first Spanish Umayyad, Abd al-Rahman , forced Charlemagne’s forces to retreat into France.

b. The 50-year reign of abd al-Rahman saw the defense of Córdoba from the Fatimids in Africa and the Christians to the north. After his death, the caliphate fragmented into many smaller principalities.

c. The Almoravids and Almohads of North Africa invaded Spain in the 11th century to enforce strict Muslim rule.

d. The mercenary adventures of El Cid during the reconquest or reconquista made him Spain’s national hero.

e. In 1942 , the last Islamic Andalusian kingdom, Granada, was captured by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille. Jews and Muslims were forced to leave Spain.

3. Fatimid Civilization
a. The Fatimid dynasty ruled , Sicily, and parts of the Middle East.

b. The Shi’ite Fatimids established a(n) in their new capital, , to rival those of Baghdad and Córdoba.

c. The , who live in modern Lebanon and Syria, originated as a splinter group that believed one of the Fatimid caliphs was the last incarnation of God.

d. The Fatimid Empire weakened in the 12th century and was conquered by .

4. Saljug Civilization
a. The Saljuqs (also known as Seljuks or Saljuks) were the earliest significant Islamic rulers from peoples. They extended their rule from Transoxiana to the Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia, much of the Near East, and Asia Minor during the century.

b. The vizier ruled the Saljuk Empire through two sultans, building roads, caravanserais, canals, mosques, and madrasas.

c. In the 12th century, the Saljuk Empire lost territory in Anatolia to the Empire, and was destroyed in the year by the Khwarizm-Shahs.

5. Ilkhanid Civilization

a. The Mongols conquered Persia and Mesopotamia in the century, and they ruled this territory through , or viceroys of the Great Khan of China.

b. Ibn al-Athir describes the invaders of Muslim lands as a dire calamity.

c. A grandson of Genghis, , conquered territory stretching to the Mediterranean, but was slowed by rivalry with Berke, khan of the Golden Horde. Partly due to the influence of his wife and other and Buddhists, his forces spared the Christians of conquered lands.

6. Timurid and Turkoman Civilizations

a. Between 1379 and 1402, led nomadic steppe peoples in conquest and destruction of large portions of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, northern India, and Anatolia.

b. The first Timurid capital at was the site of many elegant construction projects.

c. The fourth son of Timur, , ruled a united Iran and sponsored arts, religion, and economic development.

d. The Empire shared control of Iran with the Timurids, another Sunni dynasty.

7. Olmec Civilization

a. The Olmec civilization thrived in the southern portion of what is now .

b. Archaeological evidence of Olmec goods in many parts of Mesoamerica, along with the use of jade and obsidian, are evidence of early .

c. The first major Olmec center was ; as it declined, grew in importance.

8. Mayan Civilization

a. The Mayan civilization developed in the rain forests of the Peninsula.

b. Mayan civilization was composed of multiple that competed with one another for dominance.

c. The dynasty ruled Tikal for centuries before it declined and , a city far to the north, rose to prominence in the ninth century.

9. Teotihuacán Civilization

a. Teotihuacán, located a short distance northeast of modern , was a major city-state for several centuries.

b. Teotihuacán’s economy and urban society thrived due to quarrying, manufacture, trade, and intensive agriculture made possible by .

c. The power of Teotihuacán’s civilization declined between the sixth and eighth centuries because of .

10. Toltec Civilization

a. Tula, the Toltec capital, was near a(n) quarry and the edge of Mesoamerica.

b. Toltec civilization flourished in the century and century before quickly declining.

c. The Toltec king fled from Tula to .

11. Aztec Civilization

a. The Aztec capital, on Lake in the Valley of , was home to hundreds of thousands of people at its height.

b. Aztec wealth was based on taking goods from .

c. After conquering another group, Aztecs would take prisoners for and entrust the rule of the area to the .

d. The Aztec civilization was ended by conquistadors and local subject peoples who resented paying tribute and providing for the Aztecs.

12. Nazca Civilization

a. The Nazca or Nasca civilization thrived in the valleys of Peru’s coast until about 700 CE.

b. Agriculture enabled by irrigation water from allowed the Nazca civilization to flourish.

c. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Nazca capital of was used primarily for religious .

13. Moche Civilization

a. The Moche civilization thrived along about miles of the northern Peruvian coast.

b. Moche civilization was likely divided: a northern realm was ruled from in the Lambayeque valley, while a southern realm was ruled from the valley settlements near Cerro Blanco.

c. Evidence that subject peoples paid tribute to the Moche lords through their labor are the marks on the bricks that make up , the largest adobe structure in the Americas.

14. Inca Civilization

a. Inca emperors ruled one of the world’s largest states, called , which was home to millions of people.

b. Inca rulers expanded and ruled their empire through taxation, alliances, providing lavish entertainments, and employing people in state service.

c. According to Inca tradition, Inca Yupanqui defended against a rebellion by the Chanca people, founded the empire, and took the name .

d. The Inca Empire fell to conquistadors led by .

Part II: Cultural Contributions

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.


Intellectual Contributions

Artistic Forms or Contributions


Religious Beliefs





Mongol and Ilkhanid

Timurid or Turkoman









View this related post: The Role of Adaptation to Climate Changes.


Order NOW to get 15% Discount!

{{total || ""}}

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

Keeping in mind your instructions and guidelines, our writers ensure to do extensive research before beginning to write. Unique and quality paper is our top priority.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

Our team of writers and editors have many years of experience in academic writing. They are native English speakers and able to handle any academic task with ease.

Free Unlimited Revisions

We offer free unlimited revision to our clients. Whenever you feel the need to revise your work submit to our able editors. Our editors will ensure that your paper will be revised to meet your guidelines.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

As a team we work hard to ensure a timely delivery of your papers. All you need to do is specify the time frame that you want you paper be submitted. We will work round the clock to beat the deadline.

Original & Confidential

We value your confidentiality and all our payment method are secure. We also use high end writing tools to ensure that all papers delivered are unique.

Customer Support 24/7

Our customer support team are available 24/7 to accept your orders and queries. We are committed to provide you with the best customer experience.

What Our Paper Writing Service Guarantees

You do not have to worry on what to expect because at mypaperwriterspro.com we guarantee you;

High Quality Academic Papers

Our team of writers and editors is composed of people with diverse writing experiences. All of them have a Ph.D. They are all Ph.D. or M.A. graduates with extensive experience in academic and essay writing. We offer high-quality, original academic writing at an affordable cost.

Every order is written from scratch. We ensure that your papers conform to English conventions and the requirements of your discipline. To ensure originality, we also perform originality checks on all academic papers. Our success rate is 99% and many of our clients achieves their desired grades.

Zero-plagiarism policy

Mypaperwriterspro has a strict anti-plagiarism policy. To ensure that your paper is not flagged as plagiarism, we take extra precautions when writing it. Professional plagiarism detection software is used by our custom paper experts.

Privacy Policy

Mypaperwriterspro takes the privacy of clients' information very seriously. Mypaperwriterspro does not disclose any information about our transactions with third-party services. Nobody will ever know that you have hired our paper writing service to help with your paper.

Our website offers online security for our customers. Your passwords and personal information are protected and cannot be accessed by anyone else. Our customers are assured that their accounts will not be compromised by hackers. Learn more about the data that we store and how it is used in our privacy statement.

Free revision

When you order our paper service, you get unlimited free revisions and unlimited drafts. We will ensure that you submit flawless papers. Our paper help website allows you to request multiple revisions.

If the order form indicates that modifications or adjustments are required, only those should be made. These guidelines include, but are not limited to:

  • Revision instructions should not conflict with your original instructions.
  • You can request a modification before the purchase is approved. However, there is a 14-day grace period in which you can do this.
  • You should not extend your deadline by more than one day from the original deadline.
  • 24/7 Customer Support

    You can reach us by email, phone, and live chat. We are always interested in hearing from our customers. We welcome any feedback regarding our paper assistance service. Our customer service representatives are available 24/7, even on holidays and weekends. They can help you place orders, check the status of your order, answer questions, or simply provide information.

    Chat with your paper specialist via our live chat. Our professionals are available for unlimited chats. All your questions will be answered within minutes

    Money-back guarantee

    Do you still feel dissatisfied with your final paper? Don't worry. Mypaperwriterspro is committed to customer satisfaction.

    Although it is rare, you can request a partial or full refund if your final paper is not written to your satisfaction. Mypaperwriterspro views our money-back guarantee more as a right than a benefit.

    We believe that our clients deserve the best paper services available online. We offer a simple and straightforward refund process if you are not satisfied with the paper.

    Open chat
    You can now contact our live agent via Whatsapp via +1(954) 751-1024
    You will get free custom written paper ready for submission to your Blackboard